Portugal in East Timor: Civilization at What Cost?

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Portugal in East Timor

Civilization at What Cost?

Ivo Mateus Goncalves[1]

It is more or less one week until East Timor’s government and their people will commemorate 40 years declaration of independence (November 28 1975-28 November 2015) and 500 years of Portugal’s presence in East-Timor.

The theme to mark 500 years of Portugal existence in East-Timor is uncommon in compare to another former colonies. The government refers to this as ‘ Commemoration of Anniversary the Proclamation of Democratic Republic of Timor Leste November 28 1975-November 28 2015 and 500 years of Interaction between two civilizations East-Timor and Portugal and the Affirmation of Timorese Identity, (Comemoração dos Anos de Aniversário da Proclamação da República Democrática de Timor-Leste 28 de Novembro de 1975- 28 de Novembro de 2015 e dos 500 Anos de Interacção entre duas civilizações, Timorense e Portuguesa e Afirmação da Identidade Timorense).

Portugal is no longer regarded as a former colonial power, but has been regarded as old mate that brought and expanded the mission of civilization in East Timor, which led to the strengthening of East Timorese culture. In particular, the East Timorese state focuses on the historical contribution of Catholicism to the development of national identity. The argument that put forward by the government is entail political message, Portugal has been tirelessly on the Timorese side in endorsing East Timor’s quest for independence, therefore is no longer relevant to regard the Portugal as former occupier. Nonetheless, Portugal always claimed that it had no colonies; and that East Timor was the overseas province of a unitary state.

Two faces of celebration will be presented before Timorese in general and the people in the enclave of Oecusse in particular. The 28 of November 1975 is a hallmark of East-Timor history when the leaders and the people behind them declared unilateral independence—with the absence of Portugal colonial administration in their hide out on the island of Atauro— only a week before the massive escalation of Indonesian military invasion December 7 1975. Therefore, East-Timor has the sole right to celebrate one of decisive moment en route to independence.

On the other hand, history has been revealed that Portugal presence in East Timor from the first time they set their foot in Lifau, Oecusse district, when their first instilled their first Captain General in Lifau in the 1600s, was not unfettered. Portugal encountered local political opposition that finally forced them to move to Dili in 1767.

In terms of administration, Portugal ruled the colony directly from Goa and sometimes from Macau. Thus, the longevity of colonial presence those according to varieties of sources taken place for 500 years need to be questioned furthermore.

The driving force behind Portuguese colonialism in East-Timor was the lust for natural resources, spices sandalwood and raw materials to be shipped back to the center in order to enrich the colonial and financing their expedition to another mundo perdido (the lost world). Meanwhile, as Portugal urbanized, East-Timor became “progressively ruralized,” (Shepherd 2014: 76, Chomsky 1993: 14) with a rapid increase in the proportion of the population dependent on agriculture.

However, plundering, slaughtering, and oppression become common feature during the colonial time. In order to dominate indigenes, Portuguese pitted local kings against each other, the role of the liurai (local kings) was reduced to merely serving the colonial administration under the colonial aegis, and the Portuguese authority should endorse the local king that has been elected by the people. Portuguese colonialism put their hand on every aspect of Timorese life, including manipulate the political aspiration of the indigenes. Portuguese must ensure that the local kings, which elected by the people, become ears and eyes of colonial administration and fit into the colonial best interest in the field of economy and politic.

The population was classified racially according to their level of education, income and their background. Practically, civilization only benefited the elites, nearly all indigenous were illiterate, and used fingers or stones or maize grains to count. The mission of civilization was far from reality, given that it was a mission with common objective at forcing the indigenes to work even harder under conditions that favorable, mainly, the colonial administration and a few local kings and chiefs.

Anthropologist Christopher Shepherd put it most succinctly; a tiny group of assimilados had slowly established themselves mainly from the sons of local king and chiefs. They were managed to obtain proper education in the Jesuit run seminary, the assmiliados absorbed themselves with what had now become a group of a few thousand mestizos (mixed blood).

Similar with the school curricula during Indonesian occupation, the history that was taught left no room for alternative views. In school in seminaries, Portuguese geography and language dominated the curriculum. Indonesia introduced their national independence heroes to East Timorese children in every school, as well as the name of the rivers and mountains. Portuguese put into practice the same pattern. Every schoolchild learned which were the cities and rivers of Portugal. Timor was also considered part of Portugal. Strangely enough, they were taught that the highest mountain in Portugal was their own Mount Ramelau of 3,000 meters above the sea.

Slavery loomed large, as farmers were unable to meet the amount of tax that they had to pay. Crimes become so common; some people even plundering the nurseries for seedlings; selling children as slaves. Whores also grew rapidly. In the far-flung, sex could afforded with equivalent to a bunch of coconut. During the nighttime, schoolgirls hand themselves up to troops and the more ‘civilized’ autochthonous women could ply their trade as mulheres de estado (women of the state) to serve Portuguese officials and high-ranking military officers.

Amidst bitter legacy aforementioned, Dr Mario Moreira da Silva, an official from Ministry of Foreign Affairs vehemently praised that, “Timor is an outstanding model of Portuguese colonization.”

No one could denied that between East-Timor and Portugal as former colonial power have strong relations—especially if we trace back to the ties between colonial authority, traditional power holder and the sacred house. It has been widely believed that mostly sacred house in East-Timor stored the heirlooms which consist of Portuguese flag, helmet and gun. That object has been hailed as possessed certain magic that only the owner of sacred house can touch and offering ceremony on certain occasion. In some cases, the local king delivered the gun and Portuguese flag as a sign of peace and settling dispute between colonial authority and indigenes.

According to National University of Singapore based political scientist Douglas Kammen, the heirlooms often become the source of conflict. Prior to popular consultation in 1999, the head of administrator in Liquica district ordered his follower to abduct, hacked cut in to pieces the old man named Maukuru who was been accused of stored the colonial paraphernalia in his secret house (Kammen 2015: 144-145).

However, Portuguese have the reason to argue that Timor-Leste is Portugal’s young brother. Timorese people often look at the foreigner, especially the white people as ‘the lost brother’ who had returned to the homeland in search of their own origins, a seeker after a treasure that they had long held in keeping (Traube 1986: IX).

In fact of the matter, in 1950 the official number of assimilado stood at 54, on the other hand many thousands of the 435,000 autochthonous remains intact in the rural and urban areas. In 1975, prior to Portuguese departure only five percent out of total population of 750,000—before Indonesia military invasion— were literate.

Some elites that made their way to Catholic run seminary in the outskirt of Dili (Dare) become the backbone of early clandestine movement which led to formation of political parties such as FRETILIN and UDT.

The Portuguese colonialism has been well known for its climate of terror, notably the suppression against the pre-nationalist movement such as Manufahi Rebellion of 1911-1912, the Viqueque Rebellion and colonial repression of 1959 only few to mention.

It was a common feature in every colonial conquest when religion has been utilized as a means to dominate and to win heart and mind of the natives. The Portuguese introduced Roman Catholicism to East- Timor by 1515. It was the 1556 arrival of the Dominican friar, Antonio Taveira, which officially marked the commencement of a more widespread missionizing effort. The local king played pivotal role in converting the East-Timorese to have faith in Catholicism (Molnar 2010: 18).

The Catholic followers was increased sharply after Indonesian military invasion which reaching 98 percent. Catholic Church and their clergies, their tireless effort in championing the cause of East-Timorese against the oppression and brutality of Indonesia occupation. For the common people, Church is only safe place for them to seek refuge, protection and spiritual comfort.

In 1974, the wind of change swept over Portuguese colonies in Africa continent such as Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde. The Timorese elites smelled this political climate, those, obtained advance education from the Jesuit Seminary along with another fellow that has pursued their higher education in the colonial empire. They formed the political parties in East-Timor with broad range of perspective; political transition before independence is fully achieved, completely breaking the chain with colonialism and integration with either Indonesia or Australia.

When the political parties came into being, meanwhile the incursion into East Timor territory by Indonesian military was in motion. When short-lived civil war was broke out between UDT and FRETILIN, Portuguese colonialism and their administration took refuge in the island of Atauro. They did not come to assume their responsibility to expedite the decolonization process even though Timorese interim government, that has just sworn in on 28 of November 1975 during the unilateral declaration of East Timor independence, still recognize Portuguese and its administration allowed their flag in front of the government palace and the official car that belong to the Governor parking at the same spot.

In the end, the US and Australia endorsed Soeharto proposal to invade Timor-Leste. On December 6, Soeharto met with US President Gerard Ford and Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger. Soeharto finally secured their approval and on December 7 1975, Indonesian military launched massive scale of invasion from air, land and sea.

Portuguese Governor Lemos Pires and his entourage kept silent on Atauro, and then jumped to the vessel that provided by Australia and fled to their homeland. The colonial regime has gone, but their bitter legacies remained, along with its Catholic religion.

The pendulum swing back, when Portuguese first arrived in East-Timor, they brought with them the religion to conquest the native. After Indonesia military invasion, Timorese people and their leaders expressed their longing for Portuguese, in the name of culture (luso tropicalism) and the similarity in faith (Catholic). All of a sudden, cruelty and barbarism that committed by Portuguese colonialism has been ignored for the sake of “mission civilisatrice.” The ‘holy mission’ at the expense of too many lives, economic exploitation, racism, slavery, plundered and looting. Therefore, civilization at what cost?

 

Reference

Chomsky, Noam (1993) YEAR 501: The Conquest Continues, South End Press-Boston.

Kammen, Douglas (2015) Three Centuries of Conflict in East Timor, NUS Press.

Molnar, Katalin, A. (2010) Timor Leste: Politics, history and culture, Routledge London and New York.

Shepherd, Christopher (2014) Development and Environmental Politics Unmasked: Authority, participation and equity in East Timor, Routledge London and New York.

Traube, Elizabeth, G. (1986) Cosmology and Social Life: Ritual Exchange among the Mambai of East Timor, University of Chicago Press.

 

[1] Historical researcher, base in Dili-Timor Leste.

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Modelu Parseria Públiku-Privadu (PPP) esperiénsia hosi nasaun balu iha mundu no lisaun ba Timor-Leste

Modelu Parseria Públiku-Privadu (PPP) esperiénsia hosi nasaun balu iha mundu no lisaun ba Timor-Leste

Adilsonio da Costa Junior – La’o Hamutuk

Introdusaun

Parseria Públiku-Privadu ka “PPP” nudár modelu kooperasaun entre setór públiku no setór privadu ne’ebé mak promove hosi instituisaun finanseira internasional no kompañia privadu sira ba governu. Modelu ida ne’e ohin loron implementa ona iha nasaun barak hanesan opsaun ida ba dezenvolvimentu no fornesimentu servisu públiku.

Akadémiku sira no mós pratika na’in sira iha mundu fó definisaun oin-oin kona-ba PPP, tanba PPP iha tipu barak ne’ebé aplika iha munduaibé iha ideia komún hatete katak:

PPP mak kontratu entre governu no kompañia privadu ida/lubuk; Kompañia privadu finansia, harii ka/no halo operasaun parte ida servisu públiku; No kompañia privadu ne’e hetan osan durante tinan ruma, liu hosi osan ne’ebé mak ema ne’ebé uza servisu ne’e selu direitamente ba kompañia, ka liu hosi osan ne’ebé mak autoridade públiku selu direitamente ba kompañia, ka dala ruma liu hosi kombinasaun buat rua ne’e”. (Hall D. PSIRU, Pajina 7)

Iha pratika Parseria Públiku-Privadu la iha padraun ba prosesu implementasaun ne’ebé espesífiku nudár mata dalan ida ba nasaun hotu iha mundu atu adota. Nasaun sira ne’ebé implementa modelu ne’e defini no adapta tuir ida-idak nia kontestu ekonomia, kultura, enkuadramentu legal no mós evolusaun polítika ne’ebé apropriadu ba sira, relasiona ho atividade saida mak sira aplika modelu ida ne’e.

Artigu ida ne’e atu fahe idea jerál kona ba PPP, no ninia istória badak, tanba nasaun Timor-Leste mós adota modelu ne’e ba projetu balu, nune’e importante atu fó hanoin krítiku ba modelu ne’e atu bele ajúda planeador no ukun na’in sira hodi kuidadu no matenek hodi deside.

Justifikasaun

Dezde uluk to’o ohin loron, organizasaun sira hanesan ADB, Banku Mundiál no IFC hamutuk ho setór privadu sira promove privatizasaun servisu sosiál sira, signifika katak kompañia privadu ida sai na’in no operadór servisu ka infrastrutura públiku ida no hala’o servisu ne’e hodi hetan lukru.

Sira sempre promete katak povu sei hetan fornesimentu servisu ne’ebé diak liu, efisiente liu, no hamenus governu nia despeza. Maibé, dala barak promesa ne’e la realiza, no iha problema barak liu ne’ebé mosu tanba privatizasaun. Tanba ne’e ema barak iha nasaun oin-oin hanesan Indonézia, Fransa no India luta kontra privatizasaun servisu sosiál sira.

La’o Hamutuk rekomenda katak servisu sosiál sira – liu-liu servisu esensiál sira hanesan bee no saúde – tenke kontinua jere hosi setór públiku, tanba iha problema barak ne’ebé akontese ona kuandu setór privadu sira envolve-an iha fornesimentu servisu sosiál. Maibé, PPP iha tipu oin-oin, no iha diferensa barak hosi privatizasaun, tanba ne’e ita tenki analiza projetu ka kontratu ida-idak atu komprende benefísiu ka risku.

Forma ka tipu PPP

PPP iha tipu oin-oin, no ezemplu tipu balun mak: BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer); BOO (Build-Own-Operate); OM (Operate-Maintain); Konsesaun; DBFO (Design-Build-Finance-Operate).

Iha projetu ho tipu BOT, setór públiku mak hanesan na’in no finansia, no setór privadu halo dezeñu, konstrusaun no operasaun fasilidade públiku ida. Kuandu durasaun kontratu remata ona, governu komesa jere fasilidade ne’e.

Iha projetu ho tipu BOO, kompañia privadu konstrui, opera no sai na’in permanente ba fasilidade ne’ebé kria ba projetu. Tipu ne’e dala barak la uza tanba la iha retornu ba governu no mós governu mak sai hanesan regulador. Maibé iha vantajen ida ba setór públiku mak risku operasaun transfere ba setór privadu ka operadór.

Iha projetu ho tipu OM, governu fó kontratu ba kompañia privadu hodi halo operasaun no manutensaun fasilidade públiku ida. Kompañia simu kustu jestaun bazeia ba kualidade servisu ho periodu tempu tuir kontratu.

Iha projetu ho tipu Konsesaun, Governu fo kontratu ba kompañia Privadu atu kontrola aset estadu nebe iha tiha ona. Kompania hetan lukru hosi ema ne’ebe uza servisu nebe sira fornese ho durasaun tempu nebe parte rua deside iha kontratu.

Iha projetu ho tipu DBFO, kompañia privadu mak finansia projetu no durante períodu kontratu nian, kompañia sai nudár na’in ba fasilidade públiku ne’ebé sira konstrui. Kompañia hetan osan fali hosi governu. Kuandu períodu kontratu remata ona, governu sai na’in ba fasilidade ne’e.

Tabela tuir mai ne’e hatudu tipu kontratu balu hosi projetu PPP iha Timor-Leste Portugal, Indonézia no Vietnam no observasaun kona-ba sira nia frakeza, impaktu sosiál no ambientál no mós impaktu ba polítika finansiál estadu nian.

Tabela 1. Ezemplu iha Timor-Leste, Portugal, Indonézia no Vietnam ne’ebé implementa kontratu no modelu “PPP” iha projetu infrastrutura transportasaun públiku no projetu sira seluk.

Naran Projetu Nasaun Periodu Tipu Kontratu Observasaun
Jestaun EDTL Timor-Leste 2007-2012 OM §  Kompañia Manitoba Hydro Internasional hetan kontratu atu superviziona jestaun EDTL.

§  Kompañia dezeña sistema tarrifa

§  Sira mos servisu atu dezenvolve no hadiak jestaun finanseiru

Timor-Telecom Timor-Leste 2002 Konsesaun §  Grupo Kompañia ne’ebe inklui Portugal Telecom, hetan kontratu atu konstrui, reabilita no opera rede telekomunikasaun iha Timor-Leste.

§  Kontratu ida ne’e limita setor telekomunikasaun iha Timor-Leste ba fornesedor ida deit, katak konsumador la bele hili fornesedor seluk se karik servisu ladun diak.

Programa PPP tomak Portugal Médiu- 1990          – §  Iha mediu 1990, governu Portugal implementa nia projetu PPP primeiru ba setór infrastrutura

§  Unidade PPP iha governu enfrenta problema rekursu umanu la iha esperiénsia iha projetu PPP

§  Bele haree katak setór públiku nia kapasidade fraku tanba fahe risku ba setór privadu mak insufisiente no Governu sempre demora atu aprova aspektu importante rai no meiu ambiente.

§  Kuandu Portugal iha krize ekonomia iha 2009-2011, parseiru privadu barak hapara sira nia servisu iha projetu sira ne’e, nune’e publiku lakon osan barak tanba tenki selu atu remata projetu sira ne’e, ka sira lakon osan ne’ebé gasta ona ba projetu ne’ebé mak la bele kompleta.

§  Portugal hahu halo negosiasaun fila fali kontratu PPP sira iha setór estrada, no mos halo avaliasaun ba projetu PPP iha setór saude no Portugal deside atu adia projetu PPP foun sira.

Auto-estrada Cipularang Indonézia Mediu-1990 Konsesaun §  Projetu hodi aumenta rede auto-estrada entre sidade Jakarta no Bandung no hamenus problema tránzitu.

§  Iha problema ho projetu tanba avaliasaun ne’ebé Governu halo ladún di’ak no komunikasaun no koordenasaun entre parseiru sira mak la sufisiente

Yen-Lenh Ponte Vietnam Mediu-1990 BOT §  Projetu hodi konstrui no opera ponte hakur Mota Hong, ho objetivu atu hamenus problema tránzitu iha rejiaun ne’ebé importante tebes ba ekonomia Vietnam nian

§  Iha problema ho prosesu apropriasaun rai, povu la hetan kompensasaun ho valor hanesan rai ne’ebé sira lakon

§  Koordenasaun entre ajénsia públiku la di’ak, tanba ne’e la iha kooperasaun maibé iha kompetisaun fali

§  Estudu viabilidade no projeksaun ba projetu ne’e nia retornu la realistiku, tanba ne’e projetu la sustentavel

PPP iha Timor-Leste

Limitasaun rekursu ne’ebé governu hasoru daudaun ne’e halo ita nia planeador no polítika na’in sira kontinua buka opsaun finansiamentu no rekursu alternativu. Iha Planu Estratéjiku Dezenvolvimentu Nasional 2011-2030, Governu mensiona PPP hanesan dalan importante atu bele uza hodi responde ba investimentu estratéjiku sira iha setór infra-estrutura multi anuál no setór sira seluk.

Parseria Públiku-Privadu ne’ebé introdús hosi Ajénsia Internasionál sira hanesan Banku Dezenvolvimentu Ázia (ADB), Koorporasaun Finansas Internasionál (IFC) no Banku Mundial sai hanesan opsaun ida ba ita nia ukun na’in no planeador sira tanba PPP iha nasaun barak mak uza liu tinan 20 ona.

Governu mós adota modelu ho razaun balu katak PPP envolve setór privadu sira atu rezolve limitasaun no problema ne’ebé governu hasoru, fahe despeza kapitál ho setór privadu sira no mós bele ajuda governu ba hadi’ak prestasaun servisu sira liu hosi fahe risku projetu ho setór privadu ka fornesidor.

Parseria Públiku-Privadu iha Timor-Leste hahú iha inisiu 2011, Banku Dezenvolvimentu Asia, introdús modelu PPP ba bee moos iha Munisípiu Dili. Projetu ne’e atu ajuda governu hodi konvida setór privadu sira ba dezenvolvimentu kanalizasaun no fornesimentu bee moos ba komunidade sira iha Munisípiu Dili. La’o Hamutuk husu governu atu konsidera katak iha problema barak ne’ebé akontese ona iha mundu kuandu setór privadu envolve sira nia-an iha fornesimentu bee mos. Ezemplu, povu hetan impaktu barak tiha tanba tarifa bee sa’e makas, investimentu no kualidade infraestrutura tuun, no kualidade servisu sai la diak (PSIRU ‘Troubled Waters’ p.10).

IFC mós promove PPP ba dezenvolvimentu infrastrutura Aeroportu Dili no Portu Tibar ne’ebé sira hahú inisia iha tinan 2013 no seidauk remata. Maske PPP ba Aeroportu Dili sei kontinua diskute iha nivel politika. La’o Hamutuk kontinua halo analiza ba implementasaun projetu Portu Tibar hosi asuntu finansas públiku, projeksaun trafiku ne’ebé governu dezeñu, asuntu ambientál no asuntu sosiál ba komunidade sira. La’o Hamutuk rekomenda katak projeksaun ne’e ladún realistiku no posibilidade iha futuru sei absorve finansas estadu boot liu tan no sei fó impaktu negativu ba sustentablidade ekonomia Timor-Leste. Infelizmente seidauk iha informasaun natoon ba públiku relasiona ho projetu PPP iha Timor-Leste nune’e bele fasilita analiza ida ne’ebé kle’an.

La’o Hamutuk hanoin tenke halo analiza ida ne’ebe klean ba projetu ne’e nia konseitu atu nune’e iha futuru labele benefisia deit ba grupu balu no ema ne’ebe iha osan no hafraku ekonomia povu agrikultor sira. Maske governu mehi katak Investimentu boot ba projetu portu Tibar ne’e sai fatin tranzitu ba importasaun ai-han no sasan husi rai liur ho presu ne’ebe baratu liu.

Parte sluk La’o Hamutuk konsidera katak analiza ba kustu no benefisia hosi projetu Airoportu Dili nafatin la realistiku tanba utilizasaun Aeroportu Dili ne’e iha futuru sei benefisia deit ba ema ne’ebe iha osan no kompañia sira husi rai liur. Projetu ne’e sei absorve orsamentu estadu boot liu tan iha futuru no sei fo impaktu negativu povu baibain.

Risku hosi PPP ne’ebé tenki konsidera

Hosi esperiénsia iha nasaun seluk ne’ebé implementa ona PPP, mosu fallansu barak tanba polítika na’in sira halo planu ne’ebé la realistiku no la konsidera fatores importante seluk ne’ebé fó influensia ba PPP nia fallansu hanesan: kapasidade institusional no PPP nia estratéjia; enkuadramentu legál ne’ebé la forte; estimasaun kustu no projeksaun ba retornu ne’ebé la realistiku; fahe risku ne’ebé la apropriadu; la iha transparénsia iha nivel aprovizionamentu; analiza ekonómiku ne’ebé fraku no mós fatores sira seluk tan.

Ita tenke garante katak Timor-Leste iha kapasidade institusional no rekursu umanus atu jere no tau matan ba projetu sira iha faze dezeña, konstrusaun, operasaun halo manutensaun no kontinua uza infrastrutura ne’e hafoin projetu remata.

Impaktu ka rezultadu negativu sira ne’ebé liga ho PPP en jerál inklui:

  • Setór privadu influénsia governu atu implementa projetu PPP ne’ebé fó benefísiu ba kompañia maibé ladún fó benefísiu ba povu.
  • Kompañia la hetan lukru ne’ebé natoon tanba utilizasaun servisu / infrastrutura menus liu projeksaun, no ikus mai governu tenke selu.
  • Deve sa’e tanba governu bele dadúr despeza liu hosi kontratu PPP ne’ebé obriga kompañia atu selu uluk, maibé ikus mai governu tenke selu fila fali osan ba kompañia.
  • Korupsaun sa’e tanba kompañia privadu bele hetan lukru bo’ot hosi PPP, entaun sira halo pratika subornu ba membru governu hodi implementa projetu PPP sira.
  • Transparénsia no kontabilidade menus tanba konkordansia entre governu no kompañia privadu halo ho segredu, no povu la hetan konsultasaun ka sosializasaun.
  • Kompañia privadu falla atu jere projetu no fornese servisu ne’ebé di’ak ba povu, maibé difisil ba governu atu negosia fila-fali kontratu.
  • Traballador sira lakon sira nia direitu ka seguransa empregu tanba kompañia privadu la simu organizasaun traballadores hanesan sindíkatu.

Problema hirak ne’e akontese tanba razaun oi-oin, maibé fatór ne’ebé bo’ot liu mak setór privadu nia prioridade primeiru mak tenke hetan lukru – osan boot liu duké osan ne’ebé sira investe. Tanba ne’e, kompañia sempre buka dalan atu aumenta lukru no hamenus sira nia kustu, no dala barak iha mundu povu hetan todan tanba kompañia privadu ida kontrola sira nia servisu sosiál sira.

Ba kontextu Timor-Leste iha buat espesífiku ne’ebé tenke konsidera mak hanesan: Se mak hetan benefisiu husi projetu PPP, Kompañia, governu ka povu?; Oinsa projetu ne’e nia impaktu ka benefisiu ba moris komunidade lokal sira? ; Oinsa projetu ne’e nia manutensaun no kualidade bele garante?; Se mak sei selu ba kustu no rendementu ne’ebe menus liu hosi projeksaun?; Projetu ne’e sustentavel ka lae?; Liga ba ekonomia tomak, equidade no justisa?; Oinsa bele minimiza korrupsaun?;.

Maibé implementasaun Parseria Públiku-Privadu ne’ebé susesu iha nasaun seluk iha mundu fó lisaun importante tanba sira nia governantes sempre konsidera pratika di’ak no simu rekomendasaun oin-oin hosi akademista, komunidade lokál, sosiedade sivíl, pratika na’in sira no ajénsia internasionál sira.

Konteúdu hosi rekomendasaun ne’ebé matenek na’in sira ne’e sujere mak hanesan: enkuadramentu legal ne’ebé transparente no forte: prosesu aprovizionamentu ba PPP tomak ne’ebé justu no transparente: autoridade setór públiku sira tenki iha kapasidade no nivel skill ne’ebé aas: tenki iha planu transparente atu halo projeksaun kona-ba kustus rendimentu no lukru: tenki konsidera responsabilidade ba meiu-ambiente.

Iha rekomendasaun barak mak matenek na’in sira propoin maibé autór identifika pontus importante balu hodi reprezenta rekomendasaun lubuk ne’ebé iha. Ba Timor-Leste nia kontestu importante tebes ba ukun na’in sira atu konsidera rekomendasaun hirak ne’e molok sira implementa modelu ne’e ba projetu sira seluk iha futuru.

Konkluzaun

Iha inisiu artigu ida ne’e fó ona idea jerál kona ba PPP nia definisaun katak Parseria Públiku-Privadu (PPP) mak hosi kombinasaun ka kolaborasaun servisu entre setór públiku no privadu bai-bain envolve kompañia sira (dala barak husi rai seluk).

Definisaun PPP fó ideia ne’ebé furak maibé nia implementasaun mai ho istória ne’ebé diferente tebes, no iha faktus barak mak hatudu katak fallansu iha nasaun barak tanba sira nia governu no polítika na’in sira halo planeamentu ne’ebé fraku no la realistiku.

La’o Hamutuk preokúpa katak Timor-Leste seidauk prontu atu loke ita nia servisu sosiál ba setór privadu se governu seidauk iha kapasidade atu jere kompañia sira ho diak, bele hasoru problema bo’ot iha futuru. Alein-de ne’e, se ita hataan atu fó lisensa ba kompañia privadu sira hosi rai liur atu jere ita nia sistema bee, saúde ka edukasaun, governu la bele dezenvolve ninia kapasidade an rasik atu fornese servisu esensiál hirak ne’e ba ita nia povu tomak iha futuru.

Referénsia;

  1. Hall D.. Why Public-Private Partnership Don’t Work: The many advantages of the public alternative. Published by PSIRU, 2014. 7.
  2. Lobina, Emanuele. ‘Troubled Waters: Misleading Industry PR and the case for public water’. Published by PSIRU, 2014.p.10.
  3. IOB Study Public-Private Partnership in Developing Countries, the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ Policy and Operations Evaluation Department (IOB), 2013, ttp://www.oecd.org/dac/evaluation/IOBstudy378publicprivatepartnershipsindevelopingcountries.pdf
  4. Supplemental Guidance: Public Sector Definition, Published by The Institute of Internal Auditors, Dec. 2011, p. 3 https://na.theiia.org/standards-guidance/Public%20Documents/Public%20Sector%20Definition.pdf
  5. Bulletin, ADB, Edisaun espesiál Novembru 2011 No. 5
  6. Timor-Leste Strategic Development Plan 2011-2030, p. 207 (English version)
  7. Alfen et. al. ‘Public-Private Partnership in infrastructure development: Case studies from Asia and Europe’. Published by EAP3N Project, 2009, p. 42-86
  8. Successes and failures of PPP projects, Presentation by World Bank, 2008
  9. Privatizing transportation through Public-Private Partnership, Kentucky Transportation Centre, 2006, p. 26 http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1111&context=ktc_researchreports
  10. La’o Hamutuk nia pájina web: http://www.laohamutuk.org/econ/PPP/PPPIndexTe.htm
  11. Darcy, Laure. Public infrastructure Bulletin, Implementing PPPS in Timor Leste: Institutional challenges in the near north, 2012. p.1.
  12. Tribunal de Recurso Câmara de Contas Proc. RELATÓRIO DE AUDITORIA N.O 3/2014, p.6.

Atu kontaktu autor, bele haruka email ba

Email address: epidark_mozart@yahoo.com or adilson@laohamutuk.org

Diskusaun Meja Redonda: “Haforsa Reziliensia, Hametin Relasaun Entre Estadu no Sidadaun”

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Iha loron 08/10/2015 Grupu Trabaillu Nasional ba Reziliensia (GTN-R) hala’o diskusaun meja redonda iha Prezidensia da Republika ho partisipasaun reprezentantes husi instituisaun governu, sosiadade sivil, Igreija, universidade no F-FDTL.

Objetivu eventu ne’e nian atu halibur hanoin husi partisipantes sira atu haklean liu tan rekomendasaun no asaun saida mak GTN-R propoin nudar asaun atu implementa hodi haforsa elementu reziliensia mak Timor-oan sira iha.

Programa ‘Mekanismu Atu Kompriende Reziliensia’, mosu ho objetivu atu haforsa no hadi’a rekursus ‘reziliensia’ mak eziste iha sosiedade laran, atu nune’e bele kontribui ba hametin paz sustentavel iha Timor-Leste. Hafoin Sentru Estudus ba Dame no Dezenvolvimentu (CEPAD) hala’o tiha konsultasaun ho komunidade sira iha munisipiu 13, CEPAD hetan mandatu husi partisipantes ba Konferensia Validasaun Nasional iha fulan Fevereiru laran liu ba, hodi hari GTN-R atu dezenvolve rekomendasaun no asaun konreta ba  haforsa reziliensia iha Timor-Leste.

Partisipantes sira husi Konferensia Validasaun Nasional iha tempu nebá identifika elementus reziliensia hamutuk hát no ida-ida ho aspetu ida mak sai nudar asuntu no fokus ba GNT-R nia servisu. Elementus hát ne’e mak hanesan kultura – mekanizmu tradisional hodi resolve konflitu ho naun-violensia; lideransa -relasaun entre Estadu no Sidadaun; relijiaun – mensajen ba dame; lei & siguransa – ligasaun entre justisa formal no justisa tradisional.

Membrus GTN-R konkorda katak Lideransa sai hanesan elementu sentral mak  bele liga hamutuk fali Kultura, Relijiaun no Lei no Seguransa ho aspetus nebe’e iha atu nune’e hamutuk bele kontribui ba haforsa reziliensia iha Timor-Leste. Atu ida ne’e sai realidade,  membrus GTN-R fiar katak presiza hamosu vizaun ida mak bele fo esperansa ba Timor-oan hotu. Vizaun ne’e mak Iha Timor-Leste sei iha kondisaun ba hamosu lideransa ho kualidade iha nivel oin-oin, mak  bele hametin relasaun entre sosiedade no estadu baseia ba valores, justisa no fiar malu iha sosiedade laran’’. Atu konkretiza vizaun ne’e iha implementasaun, membrus GTN-R mos hamosu rekomendasaun rua ne’ebe  sira konsideira ideal bainhira tama ba prosesu implementasaun. Rekomendasaun rua ne’e mak, konsolida knar Igreja no relijiaun seluk iha advokasia ba justisa sosial, no ida seluk mak rekuiñesimentu ba valores kulturais no integra valores hirak ne’e iha lei no justisa hodi harmoniza lei formal no tradisional.

Liu husi enkontru iha Prezidensia da Republika, maioria partisipantes konkorda katak hametin relasaun entre estadu no sidadaun importante tebes atu kontribui ba hametin reziliensia iha Timor-Leste. Partisipantes sira suporta hanoin atu harii strutura nasional ida atu habelar liu tan informasaun liu husi edukasaun sivika iha nivel hotu-hotu iha Timor-Leste laran.

Membrus GTN-R sei haklean hanoin husi partisipantes sira molok defini asaun konkreta ruma atu kordena programas no atividade edukasaun sivika husi instituisaun no organizasaun oin-oin ne’ebe dau-daun ne’e hala’o hela atividades edukasaun sivika atu oinsá programa no atividades hirak ne’e bele to’o ba iha area ne’ebe mak seidauk hetan kobertura ho baze iha konteixtu lokal mak defini ona husi rezultadu konsultasaun ho komunidade sira rasik ho fokus iha iha rezilensia.

Timor: Viewing from the Eye of Researchers

Timor: Viewing from the Eye of Researchers

Guteriano Neves

 Since 1999, Timor-Leste has become a subject of study for scholars. Its experiences of resistance against the Indonesian army, its experiences in building a nation and a state, its memory of the past, development dynamics, and its culture still intact have become interesting subjects of scientific exploration among scholars. Indeed, more than a few scholars have come to Timor-Leste, and spent some time doing research on these topics. Their works have resulted in considerable knowledge production about Timor-Leste; viewed from the scholars’ eyes. In certain ways, their works also help to shape public perceptions about Timor, and also existing public policy. The researchers’ experiences in doing research in Timor are examined here. This is a summary based on interview with some researchers on their experiences in Timor.

Among researchers that I interviewed, they first encountered Timor from various sources, such as the news, lectures, or even friends. Amy Rothschild for example first encountered Timor through Max Sthal’s video about the Santa Cruz Massacre; or Judith Bovensiepen who encountered Timor through the news. It is different with Michael Leach, who first time encountered Timor in meeting Jose Teixeira – both of them attended the University of Queensland. Some Australian scholars even took part in student activist movement. Sophia Close, for example, took part in Australian student activism in 1998, and was part of the students’ solidarity movement.

Their first impressions about Timor also vary. Many of them did not know much about Timor. For some researchers, their first impression of Timor was of war and conflict. For others, it is more about struggle, or geographical features. Sara Currie, an Australian researcher imagined Timor-Leste from a geographical standpoint, as a tropical country. American researcher Amy Rothschild’s first impression of Timor was from travel and history books; which emphasized the history of resistance and occupation. Michael Leach’s impression, when he first travelled to Timor in 2002 was that Timor was a “UN Colony”. But he was also impressed with the Timorese character, which he saw as “friendly, proud but poor.”

The question of how and why they came to do research on Timor is an interesting one. There are various reasons that underline their motivations to choose Timor as a subject of research. For Sara Currie, who did research on Tourism, the reason is practical. She already worked in Timor-Leste, and had connections with people in decision-making capacities, and believed that her research could contribute to making change. For Judith, it was mix of reasons. But her interests in history and anthropology were the main reasons. And for Hannah Loney from Australia, it was her interest in the history of Southeast Asia and of Women, particularly the experiences of ordinary women under military rule, that led her to chose Timor.

Researchers’ experiences in Timor are also interesting. In all their cases, their experience of doing research in Timor has been rewarding, and life-changing. It has helped them to learn more about the topics they research. Timor, in a way offers a window for them to experience a typical post-conflict society; a society that is struggling to build its nation; a society that is different from where they live.

But it is not only about ‘hard’ knowledge. Their experiences have also helped them view the world differently. Their direct experiences of staying in Timor, of interactions with Timorese, and living in a defining moment of building a nation and state offer experiences which alter their world view.

Susana Barnes always considers her experiences in Timor to be “fantastic.” People’s generosity is something she feels “overwhelmed” by. Moreover, her experiences in Timor taught her a lot about the “importance of mutual respect and trust.” Sophia Close, who is from Australian National University, considers researching in Timor as something “extremely personally and professionally rewarding.” It has allowed her to engage in more profound discussion about the topics that she was researching. Furthermore, it gave her “great hope for other communities who are struggling to transform from periods of conflict.”

For Amy, who researches on history and memory, her experience of living in Timor was a “life-changing” experience. While she ackonwledges that Timor is not the only post-conflict country she has visited; she has never been to a country where “war was as widespread as it was in Timor.” She was particularly struck by the optimism of Timorese at that time. Experience doing research on Timor also provided different experiences for Sara Currie; whose time in Timor “broadened her perspectives about development, its advantages and pitfalls, and learned about a culture that is very different from her own.”

In a more specific context, Michael Leach believes his experiences in Timor highlight the importance of the non-economic goods of self-determination, democracy and human rights. Experiences in Timor have also helped him understand the challenges of building a nation and a state, building a political system, the semi-presidential system, traditional governance and authority, and its place in political stability.

“It made huge impact on my life and on the way I view the world. It showed me that things are always a little bit more complicated, not as black and white as they seem” Judith stated. At the personal level, her experiences in Timor also taught her about love; that each one of us can “love certain people deeply even we do not agree with some of their actions and views.”

The studies that these researchers are doing, directly or indirectly contribute to shaping knowledge about the specific issues they are researching, in the university or around the world. For Judith at least, while doing research is an integral part of her work, her students have been fascinated by Timor’s experiences. While it has to be admitted that research on Timor represents a small fraction of academic papers worldwide, it is expected that their research will contribute to shaping specific policies.

Doing research in Timor, while offering a window to view the world differently, also posseses certain challenges. The cost of living is something that considered to be one of the main challenges. Another issue is getting to Timor. This relates to the cost of airfares. Another issue is establishing contact with the right people. This is a particular challenge for the new researcher. Meeting and organizing appointments with people is also challenging due to the fact that interviewees might change their schedule frequently.

Based on these interviews, researchers’ experiences in Timor have been professionally rewarding, and personally life-changing experiences. Timor offers a window for these scholars to view the world differently from where they come from. Doing research in a country in the initial process of building a nation and a state, these researchers have witnessed the fighting spirit of Timorese, the optimism that they still have, sense of mutual understanding, and other qualities that Timorese have. Its people, its fascinating history, and unspoiled nature are other factors that these researchers value. At the end, the study, asked if they would recommend Timor to their friends to visit, and all the researchers replied “YES.”

Anúnsiu Públiku: Kompetisaun Hakerek Lenda no Aiknanoik 2015

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CASA CIVIL 

SERVISU ANALISA NO PESKIJA

Anúnsiu Públiku

Introdusaun

Mandatu konstitusional Prezidenti da Repúblika hodi kria no promove unidade nasional, halo konke Prezidênti da Repúblika Taur Matan Ruak determina koezaun sosial nu’udar parte ida hosi ninia plataforma polítika durante nian mandatu. Iha kontestu ida ne’e, Prezidênsia da Republika loke oportunidade ba Timor oan sira atu konkore iha Kompetisaun hakerek Aiknanoik ba daruak, 2015. Liu hosi kompetisaun ida ne’e, Prezidensia da Republika fo premiu sanulu ba Aiknanoik ka Lenda sanulu ne’ebe selesionadu hosi Ekipa Avaliasaun. Valor hosi Premiu ida ne’e mak osan ho montante $600 ba kada istoria, ba ema sira sira. Objetivu hosi kompetisaun ida ne’e mak atu explora, promove no prezerva aiknanoik no hametin koesaun no unidade nesional, liu hosi hakerek ita nia aiknanoik no lenda sira ne’ebé existe iha Timor.

Kriteria hirak tuir mai ne’e.

  1. Ema ne’ebé hakerek hosi idade tinan 17 to’o 35 prova hosi Kartaun Eleitoral ou Billeti da identidade.
  2. Ema ne’ebe manan ona, labele konkore tan.
  3. Funsionariu Prezidensia da Republika labele konkore iha Kompetisaun ida ne’e/
  4. Submisaun istoria tenki inklui mos identidade kompletu, hanesan naran, hela fatin, numeru kontaktu no enderesu elektroniku.
  5. Lenda ka aiknanoik tenki ninia orijin hosi Timor-Leste.
  6. Lenda no aiknanoik ninia konteudu tenki refleta matenek lokal ka sabedoria lokal ruma.
  7. Lenda no Aiknanoik tenki hakerek iha lian ida hosi lian offisial rua: Tetum ou Portugues.
  8. Lenda no aiknanoik ninia naruk entre pajina 7 – 12, hakerek uza fonts Times New Roman ho size 12, no espasu 1.5.
  9. Lenda no aiknanoik tenki submete ba Organizadora, Prezidensia da Repúblika antes loron 30 de Novembru 2014.
  10. Lenda no aiknanoik bele submete liu hosi endereso elektroniku filomeno.soares@presidenciarepublica.tl ou matias.saldanha@presidenciarepublica.tl ou submete direitamente ba iha organizadora, iha Servisu Peskiza no Analiza, Prezidensia da Republika.
  11. So istoria ne’ebé selesionadu atu hetan premiu mak sei hetan kontaktu hosi Komisaun Organizadora.

Prosesu

Komesa hosi loron ne’ebé anúnsia ne’e sai, organizadora sei simu istoria sira ne’ebé mak mai hosi Timor oan sira. Depois, sei iha ekipa ida ne’ebé mak avalia istoria sira ne’e. Ekipa ida ne’e mak sei hili istoria sanulu (10) ne’ebé mak sei manan kompetisaun ida ne’e. Depois de ida ne’e, organizadora sei anunsia istoria ida ne’ebé mak manan, no sei hetan premiu hosi Prezidensia da Republika. Prezidensia da Repúblika sei fo premiu ba ho valor osan $600 ba kada istoria no sertifikadu hanesan rekoñesementu ba sira nia partisipasaun.

Data ikus ba submisaun istoria mak 30 de Novembru de 2015.

Resultadu Selesaun ba Premiu Peskija Presidencia Republika 2015

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Presidencia Republika liu husi Servisu Analisa no Peskija hakarak fo hatene ba publiku katak resultadu ba Premiu Peskija Presidencia Republika nian ba tinan 2015 decidi ona no manan nain sira mak hanesan tuir mai:

  1. Joana Matilde Gaio Belo (Retiro da Historio de Timor – Leste e da Rresistense para o percurso Dili – Ermera)
  2. Francisco Amaral Godinho de Araujo (The Impact of Young Employees on Workforce Productivity in Day – To – Day job in the Government Sector)
  3. Jose Adriano Marçal (A Utilizasaun Da Àgua Salina E Materia Organica, Uma Alternativa De Elevar Produção Hortícola E Renda Económica Na Ilha De Ataúro, Em Timor Leste)
  4. Angelo A. Menezes Guterres Aparicio (Sexual Abuse Survivor And Their Access To Justice In Timor Leste)
  5. Élio Pereira Guimaraes (Dezenvolvimentu Ekonomia Alternativa Liu Husi Setor Kooperativa)
  6. Alipio de Almeida, Mphil (Esperimentu uzu ai Mimbaa [azadirachta indica a. Juss] Tahan Nu’udar Aimoruk Tradisional Hodi Kombate Moras Iha Balada Hodi Hasa’e Produsaun Na’an Iha Rai Laran)

Manan-nain nain nen hili husi total proposta hamutuk 40 resin no 17 mak liu short list. Depois de apresentasaun proposal, nain nen mak manan, feto ida mane lima. Husi manan-nain sira ne’e, Jose Adriano Marcal cancela ninia partisipasaun tamba nia hetan bolsu estudu iha Espanha.

Membru juri ne’ebe hili proposta sira ne’e mak hanesan:

  1. Zulmira da Costa (UNTL)
  2. Hugo Fernandes (The Asia Foundation)
  3. Fernando “Ato” Costa (Independent)
  4. Benicia Eriana Magno (Counterpart Internasional)
  5. Edio Guterres (Assessor Premeiru Ministru)
  6. Guteriano Neves (Assessor Presidencia Republika)
  7. Flavio Simoes (Assessor Presidencia Republika).

Manan-nain sira asina ona kontratu ho Presidencia Republika ho valor osan S$3,000.00 (tres mil dolar Amerikanu) kada peskija no sira  sei halao sira nia peskija durante fulan hat.

Resultadu Kompetisaun Hakerek Aiknanoik 2014

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Presidencia da Republika liu husi Serviso Analiza no Peskiza halao ceremonia entrega sertifikado no osan ho valores US$600 kada ema ba manan nain kompetisaun hakerek Aiknanoik iha loron kuarta dia 26 de Agustu 2015 iha Salao China, Palacio Presidencia Republika.

Manan nain sira nebe maka hetan premio hamutuk ema nain sanulu (10), mane nain hitu (7) no feto nain (3) hili husi konkorente lima nolu resin hat (54) nebe maka hetan avaliasaun husi juri sira.

Ajuntu Chefe Casa Civil iha nia Diskurso hato’o katak Presidencia da Republika kontenti no orgulho ba hakerek-nain sira ne’ebe bele promove istoria  povu, identidade no kultura lolos Timor Leste nia atu nune mundo bele hatene saida mak istoria orijen Timoroan nian. Aliende promove no preserve valores kulturais no moral iha aiknanoik sira ne’e, kompetisaun ida ne’e mos hanesan dalan ida atu desenvolve literature Timor-Leste nian ne’ebe sei menus tebes.

Juri sira nebe maka hetan fiar hodi halo avaliasaun ba hakerek nain sira maka hanesan, Sra. Fernanda de F. S. Ximenes, Dosente Fakuldade Arte Umanidade husi Universidade Nasional Timor-Leste, Sr. Eugenio Fatima Lemos, Artista no Sr. Bernabe Barreto husi Presidencia da Republika.

Manan nain sira ho titulu istoria mak hanesan,  Marcia Exposto da Silva (Fitun Hitu), Natalino Joao Amaral (Bee Matan Wee Ualau), Teofilo Maria de Jesus (Bilese), Marcelo Maria Pinto Nunes (Lagoa Masin Maubara), Afonso Soarea (Fatu – Makerek), Edinho Barbosa d. Santos (Bee Matan Papapa), Teotonio Sabino (Luro no Ukun nain sia), Virgilio da Costa Babo (Mota Mau Oso), Aurelia G. S. Mendonca (Liurai ho Kakuuk), Josefa Molina S. Freitas (Dahok Atan & Nai-Buti).

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Administrasaun Públiku iha Kontextu Harii Estadu, Servisu Públiku no Dezenvolvimentu Ekonomia

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Administrasaun Públiku iha Kontextu Harii Estadu, Servisu Públiku no

Dezenvolvimentu Ekonomia

Guteriano Neves

Peskizador iha Servisu Peskiza no Analiza, Prezidênsia Repúblika

Introdusaun

Servisu administrasaun públiku durante ne’e hamosu diskusaun barak. Iha estudu no analiza barak ona mak foka ba dezafiu sira ne’ebé administrasaun públiku enfrenta. Iha mos diskusaun lubuk ida ona ne’ebé organiza lori diskuti kona ba administrasaun públiku iha Timor. Iha opinioens oioin. Balu haree ba kuadramentu legal ne’ebé existe, liliu papél no poder hosi Komisaun Funsaun Públiku. Balu haree kona ba jestaun rekursu umanu. Balu haree kona ba kustu ne’ebé kontinua aumenta, impaktu fiscal, sustentabilidade no produtividade. Balu haree kona ba fornesementu servisu públiku – Public Service Delivery. Artigu ida ne’e nuudar reflesaun pessoal ida bazeia ba istoria pessoal, observasaun direita, diskusaun ho kolega sira no istoria pessoal hirak ne’ebé autor hetan kona ba servisu administrasaun públiku iha Timor. Iha kontextu ida ne’e, haree servisu administrasaun públiku relasiona ho fornesementu servisu públiku, dezenvolvimentu ekonomia no harii estadu.

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Servisu administrasaun públiku durante ne’e hetan preokupasaun; se la’os krítika hosi públiku. Preokupasaun ida ne’e refleta katak servisu administrasaun públiku durante ne’e seidauk lao diak. Wainhira ita haree hosi pontu de vista sidadaun ne’ebé sai nuudar kliente ba iha servisu públiku, balu seidauk sente satisfaz ho dezempeñamentu servisu administrasaun públiku. Ida ne’e bele nota iha diskusaun sira iha media sira iha rai laran, diskusaun sira iha nivel politika publiku, diskusaun sira iha media sosial, too iha relatório sira. Ida ne’e la apar ho kustu hosi ita nia administrasaun públiku.

Haree hosi perspetiva finanseiru, kustu atu mantein makina estadu nian durante ne’e relativamente boot. Ida ne’e bazeia ba aspeitu valor nominál hosi kustu ne’ebé aloka liu hosi orsamentu du estadu, komparasaun kustu administrasaun públiku ho ita nia ekonomia. Orsamentu ne’ebé uza atu lori mantein makina estadu atu funsiona aumenta hosi tempu ba tempu. Hanesan ezemplu, alokasaun orsamentu atu selu salariu no atu hola sasan no servisu iha 2013 hamutuk 48% hosi total orsamentu. Ou se ita kompara ho ekonomia domestika, iha tinan 2013, kombinasaun gastus salariu no bens e servisu ekivalente ho 44.6% hosi ita nia ekonomia domestika tomak. Se ita haree ba kresimentu, alokasaun orsamentu ba salariu, bens no servisu aumenta ho konsistenti durante tinan hirak nia laran.

Maski ho gastus ne’ebé boot, públiku nia preokupasaun katak servisu públiku seidauk lao diak. Preokupasaun sira ne’e la’os laiha baze. Ita la presiza investigasaun kle’an atu hatene kona ba sidadaun ninia preokupasaun. Ita bele nota deit wainhira ita ba tuir prosesu atu hetan dokumentu importante sira hanesan pasporte, karta kondusaun, Billete Identidade, too servisu xave sira hanesan tratamentu ema moras iha ospital, tratamentu ba alunus sira iha eskola, no seluk tan. Ita mos bele nota hosi relatorio ka estudu hirak ne’ebé halo ona, no mos diskusaun sira iha media sosial, diskusaun anecdotal sira, no esperiensia pessoal ema lubuk ida nian. Em jeral, iha persepsaun jeral ida katak, atendimentu publiku hosi administrasaun publiku la diak.

Saida mak akontese hosi situasaun sira ne’e? Iha observasaun lubuk ida ne’ebé autor nota durante ne’e, depois rona experiensia pessoal ema nian, observasaun iha fatin, no rona rasik mos argumentu hosi fornesedor servisu públiku sira. Ba dala uluk, wainhira komplika sistema hanesan agora, ida ne’e dudu aktu abuzu de poder iha nivel okos. Hau hanoin la’os segredu ona katak atu hetan dokumentus balu iha rai laran, balu uza “ema laran.” Aktu abuzu de poder ne’e maski la diskuti barak, maibe bele haree momos iha fatin barak iha Timor.

Tuir mai, komplikasaun sistema iha administrasaun publiku hanesan agora, impata dezenvolvimentu em jeral. Ho situasaun ne’ebe agora ema esperiensia, susar ba ema atu sai kreativu. Dala barak, halakon ema nia vontade atu halo buat foun tanba estadu la fasilita. Ida ne’e bele hamenus sidadaun nia konfiansa ba iha instituisaun publiku.

Aspetu seluk mak opsaun no dizigualidade ne’ebe mosu. Dizigualidade iha ne’e refere ba opsaun ne’ebe ema ho kapasidade finanseiru naton iha no ema laiha osan. Ema ho rendimentu naton, bele hili atu halo tratamentu iha rai liur ho kualidade diak liu; bele ba halo check up iha rai liur, bele haruka oan ba eskola iha eskola privadu, maibe ema ho rendimentu kiik, laiha opsaun barak ba sira atu hili. No dala barak, mosu iha diskusaun informal sira katak, wainhira ema elite, ne’ebe iha poder politiku no ekonomiku, sira laiha esperiensia atu uza servisu publiku, iha posibilidade boot katak sira sei la fo prioridade ba hadia servisu publiku, tanba ida ne’e la hola parte iha sira nia moris lor-loron. Hanesan ezemplu, oinsa Ministru edukasaun atu hadia eskola publiku se nia oan sira la iskola iha Timor?

Melloramentu servisu administrasaun públiku la’os prosesu ida ne’ebé fasil no presiza tempu badak. Ho mundu ida ne’ebé dinamiku, administrasaun públiku presiza adjusta an ho mudansa sosiedade laran. Sa tan alvu hosi servisu administrasaun públiku nian mak públiku. Tanba ne’e, avaliasaun ba servisu administrasaun públiku la para deit iha produtividade, maibé mos oinsa públiku nia satisfasaun ba servisu administrasaun públiku. Ho mundu ne’ebé agora iha, administrasaun públiku tenki loke-an atu hatan ba mudansa hirak ne’e. Tanba ne’e presiza iha inovasaun no kreatividade iha administrasaun públiku tanba públiku nia padraun atu hetan satisfasaun muda hosi tempu ba tempu.

Dala barak ita hanoin katak sidadaun nia asesu ba servisu públiku nuudar karidade ne’ebé estadu halo ba sidadaun sira; karik tanba la selu. Ita haree sidadaun sira ne’ebé buka atu hetan servisu públiku nuudar ema desperado sira. Ida ne’e kontradiz ho nosaun estadu, sa tan iha kontextu ida ne’ebé ita harii hela ita nia instituisaun públiku sira. Sidadun nia asesu ba servisu públiku nuudar kestaun direitu fundamental ne’ebé proteze iha konstitusaun, no konvensaun hirak ne’ebé estadu Timor hola parte ba. Bele diskuti kona ba maneira oinsa atu fornese no atu finansia, maibe asesu ba servisu públiku nudar kestaun direitu. La’os karidade. Prinsipiu ida ne’e ema sira ne’ebé haknar an iha instituisaun públiku tenki komunga.

Iha kontextu dezenvolvimentu ekonomia, melloramentu iha administrasaun públiku nuudar kestaun xavi atu atinzi kresimentu ekonomia ne’ebé inklusivu no sustentavel. Estadu, iha tempu agora, laós deit nuudar instituisaun mamuk ida. Iha dezenvolvimentu ekonomia, papél ida hosi seitor públiku mak atu fasilita dezenvolvimentu ekonomia. Ida ne’e halo liu hosi fornesementu fasilidade sira hanesan infraestrutura, prepara ema ho kualidade, estabelese sistema saude públiku ne’ebé asesivel ba ema hotu, tau lei atu proteze ema nia direitu ba proprioedade, kria seguransa atu ema sira sente seguru katak sira nia direitu proteze.

Papél seluk hosi seitor públiku iha dezenvolvimentu ekonomia mak sai nuudar konsumidor no produtor. Nuudar produtor ba sasan no servisu, estadu hili seitor estratejiku saida mak estadu tenki kontrola. Dala barak, seitor estratejiku sira hanesan Estrada, be mos, seguransa públiku, edukasaun no saude nuudar seitor sira ne’ebé estadu kontrola tanba seitor sira ne’e iha relasaun ho ema barak nia moris.

Tanba ne’e, seitor públiku, iha kontextu ekonomia, tama iha merkadu no pronto atu kompete ho seitor privadu. Estadu halo ne’e liu hosi estabelesementu Emprezariu Públiku no Ajensia Autonomu sira lori produz sasan no servisu hirak ne’ebé sidadaun sira presiza. Maibé iha differensia entre seitor públiku no seitor privadu. Alvu final hosi seitor públiku mak atu serve ninia sidadaun sira. Seitor públiku bele halo lukru atu mantein sustentabilidade finanseiru. Maibé lukru laos alvu final. Pelu kontrariu, seitor privadu, ninia alvu final, tuir ninia natureza mak atu halo lukru. Iha dalan saida deit, seitor públiku presiza servisu ho efisiensia no efikasia. Iha ekonomia ida ne’ebé integradu no interdependente hanesan agora, wainhira laiha profesionalizmu, wainhira kliente la satisfaz, ita bele lakon atu kompete.

Iha kontextu harii estadu, estadu laos kompostu deit hosi instituisaun. Harii estadu nuudar prosesu dinamiku ida ne’ebé rohan laek. Instituisaun bele harii, ho kuadramentu legal, regulamentu no funsionariu públiku sira. Maibé harii estadu la para iha ne’e. Importante liu mak oinsa estadu hetan lejitimidade ka fiar hosi ninia sidadaun sira. Sidadaun sira iha konfianasa ba instituisaun estadu atu jere sira nia interese, jere konflitu, fornese servisu públiku, ba sira.

Estudu no analiza barak ona iha mundu fo sai katak fornesemetu servisu públiku nuudar parte integradu ida hosi prosesu harii estadu. Fallansu atu fornese servisu sira hanesan edukasaun, saude, be mos, infraestrutura bazika, baze ba dezenvolvimentu ekonomia, no seguransa sei hamenus konfiansa ema nian ba iha instituisaun estadu. No wainhira konfiansa ne’e laiha, estadu lakon ninia lejitimidade.

Iha âmbitu tolu iha leten, hadia servisu administrasaun publiku nuudar kestaun xavi atu hadia ema nia moris. Too ikus diskusaun kona ba servisu adminisrasaun públiku, labele para deit iha kontextu hadia funsionariu públiku sira nia moris. Iha ambitu harii estadu, haforsa lejitimidade estadu nian iha sosiedade nia leet nuudar pontu importate hosi servisu administrasaun públiku nian. Prezidenti da Republika, Taur Matan Ruak, iha okaziaun barak, hateten katak administrasaun públiku nuudar tulang punggung mak halo estadu nia prezensa bele haree. No visibilidade estadu ida ne’e haree hosi servisu ne’ebé administrasaun públiku fornese ba públiku.

Estratéjia ba Autosufisiensia foos: Hamenus Importasaun no Hamenus Dependénsia 

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Estratéjia ba Autosufisiensia foos: Hamenus Importasaun no Hamenus Dependénsia

Maxi Tahu – La’o Hamutuk

 Introdusaun

Timor-Leste presiza importa foos barak tinan-tinan hodi responde ba nesesidade rai laran ne’ebé boot liu produsaun doméstiku. Nesesidade ne’e sei aas liu tan iha tinan hirak oin mai tanba kreximentu populasaun. Bainhira laiha kreximentu maka’as tebes iha produsaun rai laran, importasaun sei sai aas liu tan. Governu nia polítika klaru liu kona-ba hamenus importasaun foos maka hasa’e produsaun foos iha rai laran hodi atinje autosufisiensia iha 2020. Artigu ne’e koko haree vantajen no limitasaun husi estratéjia ne’e no fó sujestaun balu atu bele inklui iha governu nia planu kona-ba autosufisiensia foos. Hodi fó imajen jerál, artigu ne’e sei inklui informasaun balun kona-ba produsaun, importasaun no utilizasaun foos iha rai laran oras ne’e.

Demanda, Produsaun no Importasaun

Baze importante atu halo desizaun kona-ba polítika ka planu produsaun no importasaun maka dadus estatístika. Infelizmente too oras ne’e laiha fonte ofisiál ida ne’ebé publika regularmente dadus kompletu kona-ba númeru no valor importasaun foos. Publikasaun regular liu mak Diresaun Nasionál Estatístika nia publikasaun kada fulan kona-ba komérsiu esterno maibé sira la espesífiku kona-ba produtu ida-ida no nia kuantidade. Fontes seluk mak Ministériu Agrikultura no Peska (MAP) no Organizasaun Nasoins Unidas nian ba Ai-han no Agrikultura (FAO). Maibé dadus husi parte sira ne’e dala ruma la hanesan ka la konsistente ba malu (Young 2013; N.N 2014).

Tuir dadus ne’ebé iha, Timor-Leste nia importasaun foos aumenta ba bebeik. Husi tinan 2002 to 2012 Timor-Leste nia média (rata-rata) importasaun maka 18,598 ton (FAOSTAT). Iha tinan 2013 importa maizumenus 18,500 ton, no iha 2014 sa’e ba 221,000 ton (KONSSANTIL 2014). Governu projeta katak ba tinan merkadu 2014/2015 (Abril/Marsu) sei presiza importa foos maizumenus 72,000 ton hodi kompleta nesesidade total 140,000 ton. Organizasaun Nasoins Unidas nian ba Agrikultura no Ai-han (FAO) projeta katak Timor-Leste nia importasaun foos ba tinan merkadu 2014/2015 (Jullu/Juñu) sei sa’e too 130,000 ton. Iha realidade, importasaun foos husi Jullu to Dezembru 2014 deit hamutuk 192,500 ton ona. Iha parte seluk, dadus produsaun nian hatudu katak produsaun rai laran iha tendénsia tempu naruk atu sa’e maski ladún estavel (Figura 1).

Figura 1. Produsaun foos husi tinan 2005-2014 hatudu

iha kreximentu desde tinan 2005, tun maka’as iha 2011 no 2013, no sa’e uitoan iha tinan 2014 (DNAH, MAP).

Maxi's Graphic

Polítika hasa’e produsaun no realidade oras ne’e

Estadu Timor-Leste iha objetivu klaru atu hamenus importasaun foos. Ida ne’e refleta iha Plano Estratégico Desenvolvimento Nacional 2011-2030, autosufisiensia produsaun foos iha tinan 2020. Autosufisiensia ne’e sei hetan liu husi hasa’e natar-irrigado ba 70,000ha, uza hare variedade Nakroma no hasa’e produtividade liu husi sistema ICM no SRI. Parte pozitivu husi planu ne’e maka, liu husi hasa’e produsaun rai laran, bele hamenus importasaun no iha tempu hanesan hasa’e agrikultór sira nia rendimentu husi fa’an foos. Se tuir dadus governu nian, Timor-Leste iha rai poténsia ba produsaun foos maizumenus 70,000, no bainhira area sira ne’e hotu produz ona foos ho produtividade, tuir governu nia tarjetu, >4.5ton/ha, konserteza iha 2020 Timor-Leste bele hetan ona autosufisiensia iha foos, no sei iha tan surplus. Infelizmente, iha realidade objetivu ne’e sei susar atu atinje.

Timor-Leste nia area potensiál ba produsaun foos iha tendénsia longu prazu atu menus ba beibeik (Banku Mundial, iha MAF/FAO Policy Workshop 2013). Dokumentu MAP nian sira mos haktuir tendénsia ne’e. MAP ho AECID nia relatóriu haktuir katak iha tinan 2009 Timor-Leste nia area kultivasaun hare hamutuk 41,791ha. Iha 2014 MAP nia planu iha dokumentu OGE dehan katak atual area kultivasaun iha tinan ne’ebá mak 37,579ha. Tinan ne’e, MAP dehan atual area kultivasaun 26,373ha. Observasaun diretamente iha distritu Maliana ne’ebé halo produsaun foos boot liu iha Timor-Leste hatudu katak area produsaun foos barak mak muda ona nia funsaun. Faktu seluk maka, númeru agrikultór produtor foos menus ba bebeik. Recenseamento populasaun 2004 no 2010 hatudu realidade ne’e, no iha posibilidade boot katak too tinan 2015 ne’e númeru agrikultór sei tun liu tan. Iha recenseamento 2004 uma kain 60,971 dehan katak sira kuda hare, iha fali 2010 númeru ne’e tun ba 45,724, tun 25%.

Tabela tuir mai ne’e haktuir progresu no planu produsaun foos bazeia ba informasaun husi PEDN, livru Orsamentu Geral do Estadu 2015 no Livru Agricultura iha Númeru 2005-2009.

Tabela 1. MAP nia atinjimentu no planu relasiona ho produsaun foos

(Livru OGE Rec. 2015 no PEDN 2011-2030).

Tinan Area Kultivasaun (ha) Mudansa Produtividade (t/ha)
2008 45,635 1.8
2009 41,791 -3,844 3.1
Atual 26,373 -15,418
2015 32,280 +5,907 3.72
2018 50,000 +17,720 5.00
2020 70,000 +20,000 >4.5

Haluan natar too 70,000ha mos sei lori konsekuénsia balun ne’ebé presiza tau matan didi’ak ba. Timor-Leste nia rai serve ba agrikultura 360,000ha, rai ne’ebé soi ba halo natar no toos 150,000ha. Produsaun batar uza rai maizumenus 70,000ha ona (maski tun ba bebeik). Signifika katak hela 80,000ha rai arável. Rai ne’e mak sai tarjetu atu aumenta natar ba 70,000ha. Kestaun ne’ebé presiza konsidera maka, se rai bokur sira ne’e hotu uja ba prodús foos, iha posibilidade boot katak sei sakrifiika mos rai ne’ebé dala ruma sei fó benefísiu liu se uza ba produsaun modo sira, ai-fuan ka hakiak-animal. Peskiza kona-ba rendimentu no gastu umakain nian iha 2011 fó informasaun uitoan ne’ebé bele sai baze ba peskiza kle’an liu tan. Relatóriu ne’e dehan katak uma kain sira hetan rendimentu médio (rata-rata) kada fulan boot liu husi kuda modo, ai-fuan no hakiak animal duké kuda hare. Rendimentu médio kada fulan husi uma kain iha area rural ne’ebé kuda hare mak $7.70, uma kain ne’ebé kuda ai-fuan no modo $22.21 no uma kain ne’ebé hakiak fahi $27.22.

Hanoin balun ba oin

Kombina hasa’e produsaun rai laran ho hamenus konsumu foos

Hasa’e produsaun agrikultura buat ida ne’ebé importante tebes, maibé konsidera progresu ne’ebé iha too oras ne’e no mos dezafiu seluk, hanesan kreximentu populasaun no limitasaun rai agrikultura nian, Timor-Leste presiza iha tan estratéjia seluk atu hamenus importasaun foos. Hasa’e produsaun iha rai laran sei hamenus importasaun maibé importante atu iha mos estratéjia hodi hamenus dependénsia ba foos.

Ba tempu naruk, presiza muda ema nia hanoin no toman kona-ba han. Ida ne’e ho rekoñesimentu katak ema nia toman ba konsumu foos dezenvolve iha periodu naruk nia laran, no presiza tempu naruk mos atu muda. Maibé toman ida ne’e bele muda liu husi edukasaun no kampaña ne’ebé planeado didi’ak no iha kontinuasaun. Oportunidade boot atu halo ida ne’e iha tanba Timor-Leste iha hela prosesu dezenvolve nia kuríkulu edukasaun rasik. Kuríkulu foun ne’ebé foin aprova inklui ona buat balu ne’ebé di’ak tebes atu dezenvolve tan iha etapa tuir mai. Kuríkulu edukasaun sira presiza fó énfaze atu desde kiik labarik sira tenki hetan edukasaun di’ak kona-ba impaktu husi hahán sira ne’ebé sira konsumu, valores nutrisaun, no importánsia husi balansu iha ai-han. Edukasaun sívika tenki kuda espíritu hadomi produtu lokal nudár parte ida husi espíritu nasionalismu nian. Halo estudante sira komprende katak sira nia desizaun kona-ba hahán fó mos impaktu sira nia nasaun nia ekonomia.

Sentraliza planu hasa’e produsaun iha agrikultór sira

Realidade redusaun iha númeru agrikultór no area kolleita foos nian iha tinan hirak ikus ne’e tenki hetan atensaun maka’as. Ba oin presiza avalia fali saida mak polítika sira ne’ebé iha poténsia ka hatudu ona evidénsia katak desmotiva agrikultór sira atu halo produsaun. Polítika importasaun no subsidiu ba foos importadu tenki reavalia ka reorienta fila fali atu koresponde duni ba ninia tarjetu lolos no la hamate foos lokal iha merkadu domestiku. Politika subsidiu ba katuas ferik no veteranus sira presiza reorganiza didiak fali atu labele sai razaun ba ema husik sira nia toos ka natar. Se la’e, investimentu barak hodi sosa trator no harii irigasaun sei sai saugati deit, tanba laiha agrikultor natoon atu aproveita investimentu sira ne’e. Agrikultor, produtor foos rai laran mak tenki sai sentru ba hasa’e produsaun.

Realiza planu fatin rai produtu besik area produsaun

Iha buat tékniku balun se hadi’ak didi’ak bele kontribui ba reduz importasaun foos. Ida ne’e bele en forma de introdusaun teknolojia apropriadu ka kria fasilidade suporta balu atu hasa’e produsaun ka prevene produtu ne’ebé lakon. Ezemplu boot liu mak problema produsaun lakon hafoin de kolleita. Tuir dadus ne’ebé uja iha PEDN, hafoin de kolleita, foos ne’ebé lakon kada tinan hamutuk 25%. Governu nia planu iha PEDN mak atu hatún lakon ne’e liu husi estabelesimentu on-farm grain storage, fatin rai produtu besik fatin produsaun nian. Autor laiha dadus kona-ba fasilidade hanesan ne’e hira mak estabelese ona, maibé enkoraja implementasaun husi planu ne’e. Planu ne’e tenki realiza lalais tanba too tinan ne’e mos lakon pós-kolleita sei sai problema boot. Tuir MAP nia estimatizasaun iha 2014, lakon iha pós-kolleita maizumenus 15-20%. Ne’e reprezenta 10,000-20,000 ton foos kada tinan.

Konkluzaun

Hasa’e produsaun foos iha rai laran sei kontribui ba hamenus importasaun maibé hasa’e produsaun deit la nato’on, no presiza estudu atu garantia katak estratéjia ne’e la sakrifiika rai ne’ebé karik fó sei benefísiu liu ba tempu naruk se uza ba atividade agrikultura seluk. Presiza iha mos estratéjia seluk atu hamenus dependénsia ba han foos liu husi edukasaun kona-ba nutrisaun no mos impaktu konsumu foos ba ekonomia Timor-Leste nian. Planu balu iha PEDN kona-ba harii fatin rai produtu besik area produsaun nian importante atu realiza nune’e bele hamenus lakon pós-kolleita nian ne’ebé oras ne’e entre 15-20%. Presiza mos avalia polítika sira ne’ebé desmotiva agrikultór sira halo produsaun foos ka lakohi halo tan natar, tanba agrikultór sira mak sentru husi produsaun. Asaun hasa’e produsaun no hamenus konsumsaun tenki la’o hamutuk. Hasa’e produsaun bele kontribui ba hamenus importasaun, maibé hamenus dependénsia mak chave ba reduz importasaun.

Referénsia

Buletin Seguransa Ai-han Timor-Leste. Ed. No. 9 Outubru – Dezembru 2014

External Trade Statistics July to December 2014

GIEWS & FAO. Country Brief – Timor-Leste, 29 October 2014 no 22 Abril 2015

FAOSTAT – Timor-Leste http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/FB/BC/E

Informasaun produsaun hare 2014 husi Sr. Amaro Ximenes, Diretor DNAH

MAP & AECID. 2009. Agricultura iha Númeru 2005-2009

National Food Situation, MAF/FAO Food Policy Workshop, 20-21 Novembru 2013

N.N. 2014. Situational Analysis of Agriculture Sector in Timor-Leste

Orçamento Geral do Estado 2014 no Rectificativo 2015

Pagina MAP jornál Independente Ed. 13 Dezembru 2014

Relatóriu Anuál 2014 KONSSANTIL

Timor-Leste Strategic Development Plan 2011-2030, Agriculture – Rice, p. 123

UNFPA,. 2012. A Snapshot of Agriculture in Timor-Leste in 2010

Young, Philip. 2013. The Impact of Rice Import on Rice Production in Timor-Leste. Seed of Life

AVIZU BA PUBLIKU KONA BA MANAN NAIN KOMPETISAUN AIKNANOIK 2014 NIAN

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AVIZU BA PUBLIKU KONA BA MANAN NAIN KOMPETISAUN

AIKNANOIK 2014 NIAN

Liu hosi Biban ida neé, Presidênsia da Repúblika fo sai ba públiku Manán-na’in ba Kompetisaun Hakerek Lenda no Aiknonoik tinan 2014 nian. Depois liu hosi Selesaun ne’ebe mak halao hosi ekipa seleisaun, ekipa hili naran no istoria sira tuir mai mak manan Kompetisaun Hakerek Lenda no Aiknanoik 2014 nian. Sira mak:

1. Sr. Afonso Soares, ba lenda ‘ Fatu-Makerek’
2. Sra. Aurelia G.S. Mendonca, ba lenda ‘Liurai ho kakuuk’
3. Sr. Edinho Barbosa d. Santos, ba lenda ‘ Bee-Matan PAPAPA’
4. Sra. Josefa Molina S. Freitas, ba lenda ‘Dahok Atan no Na’i-Buti’
5. Sr. Marcelo Pinto Nunes, ba lenda ‘ Lagoa Masin Maubara’
6. Sra. Marcia Exposto da Silva, ba lenda ‘ Fitun Hitu’
7. Sr. Natalino Joao Amaral, ba lenda ‘ Bee-Matan Wee Ulau
8. Sr. Teofilo Maria de Jesus, Victor Carvalho Lobo, Samuel Soares Verdial ba lenda ‘ Bilese’
9. Sr. Teotonio Sabino, ba lenda ‘Luro no ukun-na’in sira’
10. Sr. Virgilio da Costa Babo, ba lenda ‘ Mata mau oso’

Ami husu ba manán-na’in sira hotu atu mai hasoru Sr. Filomeno Soares iha numeru 77334388 / Bojamma Gandhi iha numeru 77010398 husi Departamentu Análize no Peskiza Prezidénsia Repúblika nian hodi hato’o imi-nia informasaun kontaktu.